Gum disease is mainly gingivitis (reversible) and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums caused by microbial stimuli, the microbial plaque, while periodontitis is chronic inflammation of all the tissues of the periodontium and advanced stage of gingivitis that has remained untreated.
Gum diseases are responsible for the loss of more tooth than all other dental diseases together.
In periodontitis, gum and periodontal fibers are destroyed, the bone is absorbed and the gums are detached from the tooth. As bone destruction progresses, the teeth change position, often abscesses are created and the teeth are lost.
The most common symptom of gum disease is bleeding. The hidden danger is that reddish, swollen or bleeding gums often cause so little annoyance and grow so slowly that patients accept the condition as normal.
The most common cause of gum disease is the microbial plaque. It is a sticky almost invisible membrane formed on the surface of the teeth on a daily basis. With the help of the saliva, the microbial plaque hardens (rebuilds) and turns into a tartar. As it is formed in layers, the tartar is still covered and retains more microbes, causing gum inflammation as a result of the effect of the harmful substances produced by them.
Individual factors including smoking, hormonal disorders such as diabetes, pregnancy, etc., or reduced local periodontal resistance may make the gum condition worse.
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